Philosophical obstaclesand major impediments to critical thinking particularly about multiculturalism:
1. Subjective relativism- The idea that the truth depends on whatever one person believes. In other words, truth is perception, no matter how things actually exist in reality.
-If you accept this notion and use it to support a claim, you are said to commit the subjectivist fallacy.
Firstly, If we can make something true, just by believing it so, then people themselves would be infallible. Everything in your wildest dreams would become true.
Secondly, Its truth implies falsity. The relativist says "all truth is relative." If this statement is to be objectively true, they have just refuted their initial claim. In short, if "all truth is relative" is an objective claim, than "all truth is relative" is objectively false. The existence of truth is self-evident.
2. Social relativism- This often follows from subjective relativism and is the belief that all truth is relative to societies. This fails in the same regards as subjective relativism. It is more attractive however, because the idea that no one society is superior to another is more attractive to social egalitarians.
-For example, according to social relativism, individuals are not infallible, but societies are. The belief of the whole society cannot be mistaken and must be accepted as true, says the social relativist. Truth in this regard is a moving target across different societies and predicated upon a mere general consensus.
Under this idea, The Nazi's final solution must be accepted as true, the Earth is still flat, bloodletting is the best cure for diseases, and burning witches at the stake is the best means of eradicating witches... I know, right?
Both of these worldviews discourage actual critical thinking as the former makes the latter superfluous. If truth is relative to individuals, and in the same vein, societies, what then is the point of critical thought?